By Jonathan Steinberg
Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy have been united in a 'brutal friendship'. either had savage racial legislation: either Hitler and Mussolini viciously denounced the 'Jewish menace'. but each one kingdom taken care of the Jews particularly in a different way. when Jews who fell into the fingers of the German military have been consigned, nearly with out exception to focus camps, no longer one Jew taken by means of the Italians suffered an identical destiny. Italian officials safe not only Italian Jews, yet Jewish refugees of each nationality. Jonathan Steinberg makes use of this striking and poignant tale to solve the reasons and forces underpinning either Nazism and Fascism in an try to unravel the underlying query: Why?
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Extra resources for All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-43
Next he fired everybody he could think of in the first instance of what came to be known as ‘Changing the Guard’ and finally he lost his nerve completely. His only hope was to beg Hitler for help. ‘There’s nothing to be done here. 21 Goebbels was utterly disgusted by the spectacle . ‘Our Allies are turning tail and running. A shameful sight. ’22 As Hitler and the German army watched the Italians flounder in the mountains of Albania their sentiments changed from contempt to alarm. Neither the German nor the Italian High Commands gave any serious thought to the geographical implications of Italy’s declaration of war in June 1940.
Everything affects everything else but not always at the same time in the same way or with the same force. The themes intertwine. There ought to be a sort of historical polyphony in which all the themes develop independently but the listener hears them as a whole. Instead, like all writers, I have to put one word after another. I have to set out each chain of events separately and trace it line by line and sentence by sentence. Just telling the story was not enough. Again and again I found myself explaining Italian or German behaviour or reading documents in the light of what I knew about Italian and German history.
Landing an army in Britain during the winter of 1940 could not be imagined, so Hitler considered an attack on the Soviet Union instead. Since September 1940 General Friedrich Paulus, first Quartermaster General in the Army High Command, had been assigned the co-ordination of German strategic planning for a war against Russia and on 5 December reported the results. Hitler took the occasion for a grand review of the strategic position. European hegemony required a struggle against Russia but not quite yet.
All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-43 by Jonathan Steinberg