By Karl-Heinz Regnat
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Extra resources for Black Cross Volume 2: Junkers 288/388/488
High compressibility and acoustic impedance. This then would guarantee a good yield of vaporization. (d) The linear momentum of the vapor should be concentrated in one direction; a demand that is not particularly favored by thermodynamics. Moreover, one readily estimates that in order to "paint" a magnetic field line over a length of some 10,000 km within a period of less than an hour (this is typical for the optical window between ejection and disappearance of the jet in the earth's shadow at the altitudes of interest), highly directed initial vapor velocities well above 10 km/sec (escape velocity from the earth's gravitational field) are necessary.
So a great variety of vapor sources is available to be adapted to the demands of geophysical experiments. Similarity between these results of laboratory studies and charges about 30-300 times heavier to be used in rocket releases, was established by comparing the fluorescence intensities of the vapor jet from a 1600 g shaped charge in the upper atmosphere at 226 km altitude with a barium cloud produced by combustive vaporization at 196 km altitude. The photograph (Fig. 11) was taken about 2 sec after ignition of the shaped charge.
13. 3 kg explosive, giving a velocity distribution similar to the one in Figs. 6 and 7, was released from a Nike-Tomahawk rocket at 335 km altitude and an angle of about ap = 20° toward the field line. During the first 80 sec after ignition the fast part of the jet could be traced by means of normal photographic equipment. Television cameras gave useful records for about 2 min, whereafter the fluorescence faded away at altitudes well above 1000 km. As in the laboratory experiments (Fig. 7) there is a large amount of slow vapor, which remains at the release altitude and is comparable in brightness to the conventional barium-vapor cloud to the lower right, released at 219 km altitude.
Black Cross Volume 2: Junkers 288/388/488 by Karl-Heinz Regnat